1. ISAAC NEWTON'S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
Newton's laws explains why the planet move the way they do, and how gravity works, both on Earth and throughout the universe. First published in the principia in July 1687, the law of Universal Gravitation was the defacto reference equation for nearly 200 years until Einstein's theory of General Relativity replaced it.
2. ALBERT EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF RELATIVITY
Einstein's most famous undertaking is the generally accepted theory on relationships between space and time. First proposed in 1905, the theory of Relativity has both radically altered the course of physics, and deepened our knowledge of universe's past, present and future.
3. THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
The ancient theorem which was first recorded 570-495 B. C is a fundamental principle in Euclidean Geometry,and the basis for the definition of distance between two points. Pythagora's theorem also describes the relationship between the sides of a right triangle on a flat plane.
4. MAXWELL'S EQUATION
James Clerk Maxwell's set of equations describes how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered, both by each other and by charges and currents . First published between 1861 & 1862 ,they are to classical electromagnetism what Newton's laws of motion and universal gravitation are to classical mechanics.
5. THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Rudolf Claudius' law states that the energy always flow s from higher concentrations to lower concentrations .it also states that whenever energy changes or moves, it becomes less useful. Formulated in 1865, it has led to the development of technologies like internal combustion engines, cryogenics and electricity generation.
Logarithms were introduced by John Napier in the early 17th century as a way to simplify calculations. They answer the questions "How many X number we multiply to get Y numbers? " Logarithms were adopted by early navigators, scientists and engineers. Today, scientific calculators and digital computers do the work for us.
The calculation shown is the definition of the derivatives in differential calculus, one of calculus'two major branches. The derivatives measures the rate at which a quantity is changing. If you are working 2km an hour, then you will change your position by 2km every hour. In the 1600s Newton used calculus to develop his laws of motion and gravitation.
8. SCHRODINGER'S EQUATION
This equation describes how the quantum state of a quantum system changes with time. Developed by an Austrian physicist Erwin Schrodinger in 1926, it governs the behaviour of atoms and subatomic particles in quantum mechanics. Schrodinger equation paved the way for nuclear power,microchip,electron microscope and quantum computing.
9. INFORMATION THEORY
This is a branch of mathematics that studies the coding of information in the form of sequences of symbols and the speed at which that information can be transmitted. Applications of topics within information theory include data compressing and channel coding. Research in the field was also instrumental in the development of the internet and mobile phones.
10. CHAOS THEORY
This is a branch of mathematics that studies complex system whose behavior is extremely sensitive to slight changes in conditions. In essence,it shows how small alterations can lead to consequences of much greater scale. Chaos theory has application just about everywhere e.g meteorology sociology, physics,computer science, engineering, economics, biology, philosophy.